We humans live in society . This concept, which comes from the Latin societas, is used to name the group formed by those people that share a territory, a culture, etc. Within a society, it is possible to notice various symbolic divisions, which separate individuals into layers or lessons .
The notion of bourgeoisie is used to name one of these social layers: more specifically, that formed by the subjects that occupy one of the middle-upper strata . It can be said, therefore, that the bourgeois are people of upper middle class .
The term is usually used to name the social stratum that, during the Middle Ages , formed the people who they did not obey a feudal lord . The subjects who produced handicrafts on their own or the merchants, therefore, were the members of the bourgeoisie of the time, being below those who exercised feudalism but above the servants.
By extension, it can be said that the idea of bourgeoisie was born to name the social class that was not privileged (since it was not formed by the religious or by the nobles) and that neither belonged to the peasant field .
The bourgeoisie was key to the fall of the Old Regime and the establishment of capitalism . This growing social class needed an organization different from the State , to defend their interests and not the interests of traditionally privileged sectors.
Among the values historically defended by the bourgeoisie, is the Right to private property , the division of the state powers and the promotion of the possibilities of social ascent.
At present, the concept of bourgeoisie is more diffuse and its members, more difficult to explain than in the Middle Ages. In general, a middle class member whose political position combines is described as bourgeois liberalism (especially in economic matters) and nuances conservative (since he usually opposes the conquest of rights by the lower classes so as not to give up their own benefits).
One of the concepts that often arises in relation to the bourgeoisie is illustration, a stage of the history which, in the words of Marxist theorist Lucien Goldmann, is part of the global evolution of bourgeois thought. The Enlightenment was an intellectual and cultural movement originated in Europe, which focused mainly on England and France, and that extended from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the French Revolution and was characterized by relying on reason to get them to dissipate the darkness of humanity.
The defenders of the Enlightenment claimed that ignorance, tyranny and superstition could be fought with the help of reason. This movement, thanks to which the eighteenth century became known as the Century of the lightsIt was very important for the economy, politics and society in general. The values and the interests that are identified with the bourgeoisie were benefited by the Enlightenment, as was the case with encyclopedism.
Encyclopedism was a movement Pedagogical and philosophical that was supported by the edition of a French Encyclopedia in the mid-18th century, directed by Jean d'Alembert and Denis Diderot. It included scientific content and graphics, and had the following purposes:
* collaborate with economic and social development through the dissemination of knowledge;
* promote democratic and republican ideas;
* reveal the vices of the current order;
* put an end to tyranny, superstition and ignorance;
* reset the freedom natural of the human being;
* show ideas that serve to combat absolutism and feudalism.
The revolutionary motto Freedom, equality, fraternity, so heard when studying the bourgeoisie, summarizes the concepts that gained special importance, partly thanks to the contributions of the two movements just exposed, the Enlightenment and encyclopedism; some of them are the job, progress, freedom, equality, happiness, innovation and the individual.