The succession of nucleotides what is the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) of a species or an individual is called genome . It can be said, therefore, that the genome is the genetic material .
It should be noted that the nucleotides are organic compounds which are constituted with a phosphoric acid, a nitrogen base and a sugar. In the case of DNA , the sugar in question is the deoxyribose and the nucleotide is called deoxyribonucleotide .
The sequence of deoxyribonucleotides present in the DNA determines the genome. In the case of diploid organisms , by having homologous pairs of chromosomes their cells have two copies of the genome . Instead, the haploid organisms they have one single copy . The chromosomes , meanwhile, are condensed strands of DNA found in the nucleus of cells, with a constant number in the cells of each species.
In the genome of a living being there is always a great deal of information. A single DNA molecule would have about 20,000 million from bits , according to the calculations of the scientists. That is why its decoding and writing is very complicated.
He human genome it consists of the DNA sequence which is in 23 pairs of chromosomes . Twenty-two of those couples, present at the nucleus of the diploid cells, they are autosomal chromosomes; The remaining pair is the one that determines sex (XY for men and XX for women).
Decoding the information of the human genome is very important since these data refer to the organization and functioning of tissue and organ cells. Knowing the genome, therefore, helps diagnose diseases and to predict its course. In 2003, it was announced that the human genome sequence could be completed, but without knowing in detail the function of each gene.