The word government mentions the development of a power of the State and / or the leadership leadership in general . According to the theory, the body is defined as government that, as recognized by the Constitution , assumes the responsibilities of the executive branch and concentrates the political power to lead to a particular society . Generally, it is composed of a President or Prime Minister and a certain number of Ministers, Secretaries and other officials.
Importantly, government does not mean the same as State : a government manages to come to power (in the case of democracy , through free elections), exercises its task and withdraws, but the State always endures in the same way and is unalterable in the face of successive governments. In other words, it can be said that the government is a group where various bodies that lead to a State are grouped, through which the state power governed and controlled by the legal order is reflected.
History points out that the first governments were formed in the tribe, with the intention of efficiently coordinating the human Resources . Over the years, the government function would end up being segmented into three powers: the Executive power , which acts as coordinating entity; he Legislative power , in charge of generating the laws and norms that govern life in a certain territory; and the Power of attorney , whose task is to ensure compliance with these laws and regulations.
Among the different forms of government, the democracy (where, through mechanisms of direct or indirect participation, the people elect their representatives) and the monarchy (where the supreme position of a State is life-long and is usually designated through a hereditary order).
The term also refers to method through which a political group leads a people. To govern a society, said group uses the legitimately constituted state bodies to develop laws and put them into practice.
The ways in which a government assumes its mandate can be diverse. In the case of a republic It is decided through suffrage , all citizens vote to choose the best candidate to fill the position; in the case of monarchies the position is achieved by ties of blood or divine will. If it is a de facto government, the position is taken by force by a group that believes that the current government is not doing its job well.
Different debates about the ideal government
Throughout history they have been realized multiple theories about what is the most recommended form of government and different options have been tried. Theorizing which individuals are the most apt to exercise the supreme position in power.
In ancient Greece, Plato said that there were six possible forms of government and that among all, some of them extremely corrupt as the oligarchy, was the timocracy (concept that he devised) and that referred to a type of transitional government that was between traditional forms of government and ideals.
For Aristotle The aspects that needed to be analyzed in order to understand whether a government was recommendable or not, was whether the fundamental objective of the government was to seek the common or self-interest. He proposed as an ideal government to the monarchy because even though it was a "well-off" government, it used to have the primary goal of achieving stability and social harmony.
Later, Machiavelli He will state in his work "The Prince" that all the governments that had existed until now were republicans or principalities and that no ideology could possibly be considered ideal, unless it could merge good principles in other ways. That is, he proposed a type of mixed government , where monarchy, aristocracy and democracy coexist in this way the powers of each of them would control the exercises of the others and avoid abuse, if necessary.
For its part St Thomas , affirming itself in medieval theories, it affirms that the ideal government must be one where power is concentrated in a single person, as the human body is governed by a single soul, and only one god rules the Universe. This concept strongly opposes the anarchy , however, it ensures the right of the people to political arbitrariness, in case the monarch does not fulfill his mandates correctly.
Constitutional and unconstitutional governments
As we have said before a constitutional government It is governed by a series of laws issued by legitimately chosen bodies. They have the characteristic that several parties stand for elections and are elected cleanly. The party that receives the most votes will lead the government, the rest of the parties will occupy different percentages in the chamber of deputies and senators, so that the power is divided equally and there is no monopoly government. In addition, the government must bind to existing laws and account for all the actions you take. These requirements make the State a democratic entity of law. These governments include the government system presidential, parliamentary or semi-presidential .
A facto government (dictatorships), meanwhile, is unconstitutional because to exist you must ignore the laws that govern the harmony and coexistence of that society. These governments, therefore, do not represent the ideas of the people but of a small group of society that, through violence, dismisses the current ruler to take his place.
A de facto government can arise in several ways: through a coup or by a revolution or other de facto procedure that is disconnected from the legal system.
As examples of this type of government we can mention the one of Frank in Spain during the Civil War of l936, in Algeria during the time of independence and in Latin America in countries like Chile and Argentina in the 1970s, and in Colombia today.