The body responsible for exercising the executive power of a State is called government . The concept can also refer to the duration of the mandate of its authorities (the president, the ministers, etc.). Federal , meanwhile, refers to federalism: a system based on the permanent union of states that are linked under the principles of hierarchy, autonomy and participation.
A federal government , therefore, is the one in charge of directing a State organized in this way. Its about central government which acts in coordination with the various private governments of the different regional administrations.
In a federal state or federation , there are multiple political and territorial entities that have a certain autonomy but are grouped in the same national state. A Federal Republic For example, you can count on a certain number of provinces, each one divided into several municipalities. Within this framework, municipal governments, provincial governments and the federal government coexist.
A federal government, in short, is responsible for the exercise of National sovereignty and of the legal representation of the nation as a whole. Its actions are determined by the provisions of the National Constitution, which sets its obligations, responsibilities and powers.
It can be said that the federal government is the central authority of a state organized as a federation. Its authorities exercise the executive power at the national level, attending to the needs of the inhabitants of the whole territory but without violating the attributions of other levels of government. Federal government "Share" power with state, departmental, provincial, municipal governments, etc.