A delusion It is a representation or a concept that arises from a deception of the senses or imagination, lacking a real livelihood. The idea of optics or optical, meanwhile, has several meanings: among them, that linked to vision (the ability to perceive with the eyes; that is, to see).
A optical illusion therefore it is a image which can perceived with the view in different ways . This particularity may have a physiological origin (due to the effect of movement, color or brightness in the eyes or brain) or cognitive (derived from the way we understand reality).
Optical illusions occur when the eye cannot clearly see certain images as they are presented in more than one way, while the brain It is able to assimilate only one image at a time. In this way, a confusion .
One of the most famous optical illusions is the Rubin Cup , developed by the psychologist Edgar Rubin (1886 -1951 ). This Danish researcher devised a drawing that can be seen as a Cup or as two faces They are facing each other. Depending on the point at which the observer focuses his gaze, he will perceive the cup or faces.
The scintillating grid It is another well-known optical illusion. It is a grid in which it gives the sensation of appearing and disappearing points found at the intersections of horizontal lines and vertical lines. Thus, the grid looks like sparkle or twinkle , although in reality it is an inanimate graphic.
According to the investigations of Mark Changizi , a scientist of New York Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute , the optical illusion arises as a result of a delay in the neurons that almost all human beings experience during wakefulness, that is, when we are awake. He points out that when the light reaches the retina, it passes approximately one tenth of a second until the brain can translate the signal and convert it into a visual perception of the environment .
This way of interpreting the phenomenon of optical illusion may seem untraditional to many, but it is based on a feature of our brain that many scientists had already noticed before Changizi. The difference between the two positions is that the others tend to focus on a supposed compensation mechanism for said delay that takes place in the system engine.
According to Changizi, compensation occurs in the visual system of our species and allows it to generate images "of the future", that is, what it means will happen a tenth of a second later. Thanks to this forecast, the human being can react to the events that take place in the present, although for his brain they are part of a potential future . Catching a ball that has been flying towards us or accurately manipulating a complex tool are two of the many examples in which we need these predictions to come out graceful and unharmed.
In an interview for television, Changizi said that optical illusion takes place when the brain produces an incorrect prediction of the future, that is, one that does not match reality. Some of the images mentioned in the previous paragraphs, as well as others that give us the feeling of moving along a tunnel or that objects are at different distances from us, among many other possibilities, are designed to cause intentional way this "error "in our brain. Simply put, optical illusion occurs as a result of a limitation of our mind.