Oliguria , also known by the name of decrease in urinary expenditure, is a notion that is used in the medicine to name a deficiency in diuresis . This last concept (diuresis), meanwhile, refers to the urine generation and / or expulsion .
The urine, also called urine , is that liquid produced by kidneys , is stored in the urinary bladder and is removed from body via the urethra , in an action known as urination .
Through urine, a person removes various wastes and substances from their body whose excretion is necessary to maintain a good state of Health . It is estimated that each individual eliminates, under normal conditions, some 1.4 liters of urine daily .
When said production is below that value, the person It suffers from oliguria, which can be generated by various causes, the following being the most common:
* dehydration for not drinking enough water, for presenting a picture of fever, diarrhea or vomiting;
* absolute obstruction of the urinary tract, as a result of an increase in the size of the prostate (the phenomenon known as enlarged prostate, hypertrophy or benign prostatic hyperplasia, usually occurs in almost all men when they reach old age);
* the use of medications such as diuretics, anticholinergics or certain antibiotics.
On the other hand, there are certain rare causes that have also been identified in relation to the appearance of oliguria: blood loss; any type of condition that causes shock (when the body does not receive the blood flow necessary for its proper functioning, with the consequent lack of oxygen for cells and organs), such as being a serious infection.
From a functional point of view, the mechanisms that produce oliguria are grouped into the following categories:
* prerenal : as a result of kidney shock, which may arise from dehydration due to lack of fluid intake, sepsis, massive bleeding or diarrhea;
* renal : because of some kidney damage, such as being shock , adverse effects of certain medications or rhabdomyolysis;
* postrenal : arises before the obstruction of the urinary flow, as it happens with the enlarged prostate or in the presence of bruises.
A CT scan or an ultrasound of the abdomen, an analysis of blood or a urine test are some of the studies that help determine why oliguria may have occurred.
Once the origin of the oliguria is discovered, the doctor will decide which is the best treatment for the inconvenience. It is important to make sure you drink the amount of water recommended by the doctor. The professional can supply a drug or insert a catheter, for example, and also indicate that the patient measures the amount of urine he expels per day.
If the oliguria gets worse, the patient will suffer from anuria (the absence of the expulsion of the urine). When excretion does not reach fifty milliliters per day, the level that allows diagnosing anuria is reached, which is usually accompanied by vomiting, nausea and other disorders.
It should be mentioned that the most severe cases of oliguria can be fatal, especially if they are not reversed with proper medical attention. For this reason it is important to consult with a doctor at the first suspicion of being producing less urine than normal per day.
Some of the data that the doctor usually requires patients who suffer or believe to suffer from oliguria are the following: the approximate date on which the problem began and if it has evolved since then; the amount of water they drink per day; any particularity related to the color of the urine; if they have suffered from bladder or kidney problems.